Economics serving society

Transparency Principles


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The success of the Paris School of Economics depends on the scientific excellence of its academic staff and their openness to society and the media. But it also requires the respect of ethical principles designed to preserve the scientific integrity of economic research as practised at PSE. Material interest or partisanship cannot take precedence over scientific rigour in scientific publications and communications, in the media or in public debates, whether specialised or not.
In order to preserve their credibility and the reputation of the institution, the members of the Paris School of Economics Foundation undertake to respect certain elementary principles of transparency, and the Foundation imposes similar principles on itself.


Academic members

The principles to be observed by academic members of the Paris School of Economics Foundation, hereinafter referred to as “members”, are as follows:

General principles of research funding and concurrent employment

1. Almost all PSE members are employed mainly by public higher education and research establishments and organisations. As such, and with regard to any ancillary remuneration, they must comply with the regulations of the civil service concerning multiple employment.

2. In addition, each member undertakes to declare to the Foundation’s management any source of ancillary remuneration in excess of €5,000, and to specify for each of them where this remuneration falls within the following two ranges: (i) from €5,000 to €25,000 per annum, (ii) more than €25,000 per annum.

3. PSE members also undertake to fill in a declaration of interests, according to a common template, to publish it on their personal page on the PSE website, and to update it as soon as necessary and at least once a year. This declaration of interests must include :

  • a. remunerated ancillary activities (excluding royalties) in excess of €5,000 in any one year over the last three years;
  • b. their membership of the governing bodies of political parties, trade unions and associations and their membership of company boards or boards of directors, where there is a risk of interference with their research or position statements mentioning their affiliation with PSE ;
  • c. their other consultancy activities, if there is a risk of interference with their research or position papers mentioning their affiliation with PSE.

4. For its part, the Foundation’s management undertakes not to make any public use of this information, but to check regularly that it is actually available on its members’ pages.

Working papers and scientific publications

5. With regard to documents and publications showing the researcher’s affiliation with the Paris School of Economics, the following principles must be applied:

  • a. The sources of funding, other than the main employer and the Foundation, for the corresponding research must be explicitly stated.
  • b. The identity of organisations that have paid remuneration in cash or in kind to the associated researcher, or one of their co-authors, and that have any interest whatsoever (financial, ideological or political) in relation to the issues dealt with in the working paper or publication must be mentioned if the remuneration exceeds €10,000 over the previous three years.
  • c. The researchers must indicate any positions held by them or one of their coauthors in non-profit organisations and associations whose purpose is related to the working paper or publication.
  • d. They must also indicate whether the working document or publication has been authorised for distribution by a funding or data provider.


Transparency principles for the PSE Foundation - Paris School of Economics

6. In accordance with the same principle of transparency, the Paris School of Economics Foundation undertakes to publish and keep up to date on its website the list of contributors to its endowment, as well as the exact composition of its Board of Directors.

7. In the same way, each year it will publish a list of contractual funding and research grants in excess of €10,000 received under research contracts, consultancies or company chairs, specifying for each of them the nature of the research or services provided.

8. The funding of a particular PSE Foundation research programme by a private organisation in no way prejudges the conclusions that the corresponding work will lead to.

9. Any contribution to the endowment of the Foundation will only be accepted if it respects the same principle of non-interference by the donor in the research programmes of the Paris School of Economics and the conclusions reached by its researchers.

10. All research undertaken at the Paris School of Economics is eligible for publication in scientific journals, regardless of how it is funded. In the case of research using confidential data, an ex-ante agreement may be reached with the data provider regarding the publication deadline. However, this period may not exceed two years after the results of the research have been communicated.


Respect for the principles

The Paris School of Economics undertakes to remind its associate and affiliate members of their obligations in terms of transparency and to take appropriate measures in the event of non-compliance with these obligations.

This version of the principles of transparency and professional integrity was approved by CLEOR on 10 May 2022.