Economics serving society

Our columns in Les Echos

Every month, Les Echos publish two columns from PSE researchers on major economic issues: migration, health, education, energy transition, globalisation, debt, inflation, growth, labour...

Find their contributions on this page.


PNG - 28.4 kb
PNG - 25.3 kb

Savings: risk aversion is not what you think it is | Luc Arrondel and Fabrice Etilé

A study conducted by the Paris School of Economics using an original methodology offers a new reading of savers’ behavior in the face of major crises, such as the Covid...

PNG - 18.9 kb

Inequality: the source of social frustration? | Hippolyte d’Albis

At a time when the feeling of injustice seems to be on the increase, Hippolyte d’Albis proposes to better define inequalities and compare them within the same age group. Current generations are more unequal than older ones," he observes...


Do you have to grow old to be happy? | Claudia Senik.

Research into subjective well-being shows that an individual’s satisfaction depends not only on the standard of living, but also on the position in relation to a reference group. For Claudia Senik, age has a lot to do with it.


Inflation: who suffers most from rising rates? | Tobias Broer

To combat inflation, the European Central Bank has had to raise interest rates to historic levels. These monetary policies have very uneven effects on households, impoverishing precarious workers the most, observes Tobias Broer...

Should we introduce a universal income? | Axelle Ferriere

A universal income of 20% of the population’s average income, paid to all households without exception, could be financed by a higher tax, but at an equal rate for all households, explains Axelle Ferriere...


The dual challenge of food security and climate change | Sylvie Lambert

Intensive agriculture accelerates the deforestation of forests, which are essential for carbon capture. In the countries of the South, particularly Africa, agriculture must go hand in hand with sustainable practices if we are to meet our climate objectives, stresses Sylvie Lambert...

Forest regeneration: the driving force of participatory management | François Libois

To prevent deforestation, the Nepalese government has set up a program to decentralize forest management. This experience is an inspiring example for other countries," emphasizes François Libois...


PNG - 24 kb

When self-confidence becomes excessive | Maël Lebreton

Having an advantageous view of oneself is a human trait firmly established by the behavioral sciences. In this article, Maël Lebreton, a research associate at the Paris School of Economics, analyzes the concept of “overconfidence” and how it contributes to denial...

PNG - 28 kb

Web platforms: the anti-competitive risk | Nikhil Vellodi

By also selling their own products on their sites, platforms are both players and organizers of digital markets. A duality that gives rise to potentially anti-competitive business practices, argues Nikhil Vellodi, assistant professor at the Paris School of Economics...


PNG - 32.6 kb

“Role models”, a lever for feminizing scientific careers | Julien Grenet

One way of combating the influence of gender stereotypes on career choices is to expose students to female role models with whom they can identify, says Julien Grenet, professor at the Paris School of Economics...

PNG - 19.8 kb

How to reduce inequalities in guidance | Nina Guyon

Students at the same school level have very different career choices, depending on their social class and family background. A lack of information explains these differences, explains Nina Guyon, professor at the Paris School of Economics...


PNG - 28.4 kb

The “prize” of women’s soccer | Luc Arrondel and Richard Duhautois

The Women’s World Cup has begun, but broadcasting rights are still far below those for men’s soccer. To increase demand, we need to stimulate supply, in this case the quality of the game. By making players more professional and giving them more training, explain Luc Arrondel, professor at the Paris School of Economics, and Richard Duhautois...

PNG - 22.9 kb

Taxation of Gafam profits: reasons for the status quo | Francis Bloch

Despite the G20 consensus, negotiations for a tax on digital giants are stalling, points out Francis Bloch, professor at the Paris School of Economics, and reveals major tax differences between Europe and the United States...

PNG - 26.3 kb

How can we continue to spread scientific knowledge? | Catherine Bobtcheff

Scientific journals are the main channels for disseminating researchers’ discoveries, but with the rising cost of subscriptions, these journals are tending to disappear. To reconcile free access for all with fair remuneration for authors, Catherine Bobtcheff, professor at the Paris School of Economics, proposes a new economic model for scientific journals...

PNG - 22.8 kb

Gender inequality: the lure of discrimination | Nicolas Jacquemet

Beliefs that women are systematically discriminated against on the job market can have deleterious effects on their careers and professional trajectories, says Nicolas Jacquemet, professor at the Pairs School of Economics...

PNG - 24.4 kb

Can the carbon market enable competitiveness? | Hélène Ollivier

Last May, Emmanuel Macron called for a “regulatory pause” in environmental legislation to give industry a breathing space. Is it necessary to slow down climate policy to achieve economic results? Not necessarily, argues Hélène Ollivier, professor at the Paris School of Economics. In fact, the carbon market enables companies to invest in new technologies and stimulates growth...

PNG - 24 kb

Why inflation will persist | Gilles Saint-Paul

Inflation levels are still high compared with the targets set by central banks. For Gilles Saint-Paul, professor at the Paris School of Economics, this situation will persist, as the rise in interest rates has not been strong enough and must continue...


PNG - 19.4 kb

Livreurs : mieux appréhender les conditions de travail | Bénédicte Apouey

Ubereats, Deliveroo or Justeat, meal delivery platforms employ over 28 million people in the EU. While European legislation is being prepared to regulate their status, Bénédicte Apouey, professor at the Paris School of Economics, reveals the results of a survey to understand the living conditions of these workers...

PNG - 25.3 kb

Alcool : les bénéfices économiques et sanitaires d’un prix minimum | Fabrice Etilé

Scientific studies show that price increases can significantly reduce alcohol consumption, points out Fabrice Etilé, professor at the Paris School of Economics. But the acceptability of such a reform is complicated by the importance of the wine industry in France...


La démocratie ne s’arrête pas toujours aux portes de l’entreprise | Thomas Breda

The question of social democracy has been much debated at national level, but at company level, employee representation is still largely perfectible, explains Thomas Breda, professor at PSE...

Opinion Prisons : moins d’incarcérations pour une meilleure réinsertion ? | Camille Hémet

While the potential benefits of strict incarceration are complex to quantify in the French context, several international studies suggest that they tend to be nil or even negative, particularly when prison conditions are poor, points out Camille Hémet, professor at the Paris School of Economics...


Énergies renouvelables : pourquoi inciter à faire petit ? | Nicolas Astier

Photovoltaic power plants, whether it is small residential installations or large farms, have benefited from significant public support, but it is not necessarily justified to favor the former to the detriment of the latter, points out Nicolas Astier, professor at PSE...

Le coût de l’acceptabilité sociale de la transition énergétique | Katheline Schubert

By leaving the carbon tax frozen at its 2018 level and subsidizing decarbonized electricity production at the same time, governments are choosing a slower and more expensive energy transition than by setting an increasing carbon price, explains Katheline Schubert, professor at PSE...


PNG - 17.7 kb

Opinion / Concurrence : la RATP renaîtra-t-elle des cendres de sa Régie ? | Philippe Gagnepain.

The opening to competition in Île de France could be much less painful than expected for RATP, says Philippe Gagnepain, professor at PSE...

PNG - 26.2 kb

Tarifs d’électricité : pourquoi faire compliqué quand il faudrait faire simple ? | Carine Staropoli.

The complexity of electricity rate offers could undermine the effectiveness of new energy efficiency measures, points out Carine Staropoli, a professor at PSE. Incentive tariffs to change behavior do not take into account enough the cognitive biases of each individual...


JPEG - 13.3 kb

Quelle est l’efficacité des activistes écologistes ? | Mireille Chiroleu-Assouline.

Economists are interested in the effectiveness of the actions of climate activists. Do they contribute to the adoption by companies of more environmentally friendly practices, through CSR commitments?

JPEG - 10.1 kb

Les parties prenantes et le bien-être social | Marc Fleurbaey.

Being able to measure a company’s total value rather than just profit is not an unattainable goal, stresses Marc Fleurbaey, professor at the Paris School of Economics (PSE). It remains to encourage all companies to adopt these good practices.


JPEG - 10.9 kb

Le difficile ajustement carbone aux frontières | Lionel Fontagne.

The adjustment mechanism raises two difficulties: it does not protect European exports of carbon products and it penalizes European producers using these products as intermediate consumption.

Les modes de production deviennent-ils plus responsables ? | Pamina Koenig and Sandra Poncet.

Initial analyses suggest that new responsible commitments contribute to improved working conditions and wages. However, bad practices remain.


Les gagnants et les perdants du travail du dimanche | Eric Maurin.

The Macron law of 2015 was indeed followed by a significant increase in Sunday work in shops in targeted areas, stresses Eric Maurin, professor at PSE. However, the reorganisation of hours does not have the same consequences for everyone...

Il n’est pas temps d’abolir le lieu de travail | Claudia Senik.

Would people be mistaken in imagining that telework is conducive to their well-being? asks Claudia Senik, professor at PSE. Two years after the confinements, studies are providing the first answers...


L’émigration, seule issue face à l’intensification du changement climatique? | Katrin Millock.

Beliefs about international migration and climate change need to be revised, says Katrin Millock, Professor at PSE. Yes, there will probably be increases in migration flows, but mostly within a region or continent, especially in Africa and Asia...

Comment aider les réfugiés ukrainiens à reconstruire leur pays ? | Hillel Rapoport.

Ukrainian refugees will be able to play an important role in the reconstruction of their country, according to Hillel Rapoport, professor at PSE. Ukraine will be able to benefit from the experience, knowledge, savings and know-how accumulated by Ukrainian refugees in the workplace...

You can also consult the dedicated section on Les Echos website.