Economics serving society


January 2024

Transition Minerals: The hidden cost of clean energy by Mouez Fodha

The move to a low-carbon economy will require a substantial increase in the production of so-called transition minerals which are needed for, amongst other things, renewable electricity networks, battery performance and permanent magnets - key components of wind turbines and electric vehicles. These minerals (including copper, aluminium, lithium, nickel, cobalt and manganese) all need to be mined - a process which has historically often been at odds with positive environmental outcomes and labour practices. For investors, this has clear implications.