Paris School of Economics / Université Paris 1 Panthéon Sorbonne
Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne – Maison des Sciences Economiques
4e étage, bureau 403
- Economie expérimentale
- Economie comportementale
Directeur de thèse : ETILE Fabrice
Année académique d'inscription : 2013/2014
Titre de la thèse : On the Economics and the Psychology of Intertemporal Choices
Année de la soutenance de thèse : 2018/2019
Date de la soutenance de thèse : 11 décembre 2018
Work in progress
Betting Against Yourself for Weight-Loss: A Theoretical and Experimental Investigation
Commitment devices are often proposed to address weight-loss related time inconsistent behaviors. Yet, little is known on the psychological determinants of self-selection into commitments devices that may vary in terms of weight-loss targets.
This paper examines specifically why and how present-bias individuals set financial penalties to themselves to achieve a goal whose difficulty is exogenously determined. In a discrete effort task model, sophisticated quasi-hyperbolic individuals are willing to restrict their future behavior with a financial penalty when present-bias is sufficiently severe. The penalty they should set to themselves is very large for easy and hard goals to motivate themselves to exert a high effort in the future. The minimal penalty amount is when the changing in the level of effort has the highest influence on the goal success. However, individuals opts out when goals are too hard ie. when the likelihood of failure is high even if they exert a high effort. Hence, even though highly present biased individuals would need higher penalties, they prefer to exit the commitment mechanism for goals that are too hard to achieve. These theoretical results are robust to the addition of psychological mechanisms such as loss aversion and partial naiveté.
An experimental pilot is proposed to illustrate the effect of goals and present-bias on commitment using experimental and psychometric methods to elicit time preferences. While I find a decreasing relationship between penalties and goals, higher impulsivity and a higher consideration of immediate consequences are associated with commitment opting-out which is consistent with the theoretical model.
Impulsiveness, Situational Influences and Health Behaviors : Evidence from Evening and Night Work, with Fabrice Etilé
In this article, we examine and reconsider the relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and night work, and we analyze specifically the moderating role of self-control in this relationship.
Using a German panel data set of 13,146 individuals followed between 2007 and 2014, we find significant cross-sectional correlations between evening and night work and BMI. However, fixed-effect regressions show that transitioning from a regular working schedule to evening and night work has a significant impact on body mass index, only for those individuals who score high on an impulsiveness scale and are assigned to irregular evening and night work schedules. Transitions to regular evening and night shifts have no effect on BMI. Additional regressions reveal that the result may be explained by changes in the propensity to implement health-conscious diet but are unrelated to changes in physical exercises.
Our results are line with predictions of self-control theory about the role of trait impulsiveness and environmental factors in self-control depletion and impulsive behaviors.
French Translation and Validation of the Aspect of Identity Questionnaire, With Fabrice Etilé
The purpose of this study is to translate and validate in French the Aspect of Identity IV (AIQ-IV) questionnaire on a representative sample of French young adults (N=1,118).
A first exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of responses of the French version of the AIQ-IV revealed a similar factorial structure to the one in the original paper although some items tend to load highly on two factors. We performed a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) after the removal of these items allowing to verify the existence of a structure in four factors corresponding to the personal, relational, social and collective identity orientations. The test-retest procedure shows encouraging temporal stability of the scale. In addition, The construct validity of the scale was assessed by convergent and concurrent validity: while being correlated with theoretically similar constructs (Self esteem, Social Self esteem, Self-consciousness), the aspect of identity also predicts economic preferences through Likert-scale measurements.
Although the findings are preliminary, they however support the reliability and validity of the AIQ-IV in French and opens up new research opportunities on the relationship between identity orientations and economic preferences.